Select at least 3 of these 5 contexts and compare/contrast the IDT trends and issues. Then explain how they are similar or different from the IDT trends and issues in the context in which you work.
Business, Pre K-12, Military
As the information age continues to grow and countries around the world begin to join the masses, our connections continue to get tighter. Businesses reach beyond borders to find the best prices, the best facilities and the best opportunities for workers. No longer is it necessary for a business that serves globally to be located in the country in which they were founded. If another country can serve as a better host for the business, it is just a matter of time before the company seeks out the opportunity. Because of this, businesses no longer can plan simple IDT solutions to keep their employees up to date on supply and demand and work force performance. Companies have to be willing to expand their training ability to meet the needs of all the employees for the most successful results.
In education (pre-k-12), the typical classroom no longer exists. Students enter the school doors with many different backgrounds, originations, learning challenges and socio-economic status's. Because of that, teachers are needing training in a larger variety of scenarios that may vary from year to year. Learning doesn't always happen just-in-time, but more often as a knee-jerk reaction to their falling behind. With instructional design types covering systems, products and classrooms, the teacher has a vast amount of learning to cover all of her needed learning areas. These areas are changing rapidly as well, and figuring out how to meld the three for the greatest learning is critical for the students success. One of the best lines in the book said, "Only with much wider recognition of the need for ecological systemic change among policymakers, school district leaders, funders, and researchers will it be possible to communities to succeed in transforming their school systems to meet their needs in the information age" (pg. 181). This statement really puts it all into perspective when considering the amazing challenges we face as global learners.
In military, learning cannot be the same for everyone, because like in education and in industry, the learners are from all over the world. They have language barriers, learning challenges, and cultural hurdles. Preparing IDT for the masses means that the designer needs to be aware of cultural differences, language differences and even time differences for when presentations are taking place. Each can have a huge effect on the success of the learner and the military operation.
In all three areas discussed, culture is now one of the biggest instructional design issues that comes into play. Additionally, funding for each of these has become a central focus because of global market depression. Without the funds to train, often times, the learner is left to figure things out on their own and they aren't always successful in their ventures.
Part B. Chapters in Section VI discuss global trends and issues in IDT. As the world’s population grows exponentially, we face unprecedented challenges that have implications for learning. How and can we prepare our youth to address the problems of living in a world with 9 billion people when the earth’s resources cannot sustain that many? Does our current education system, curriculum, and instructional practices help learners foster the complex problem-solving skills necessary to tackle these issues? Are there methods and practices used in European and Asian countries that we should use here in the US? Why or why not?
I guess if we knew the answer to that question, we would not still be discussing it today. As the population on the earth continues to increase, it is evident that education is the most critical piece to human survival. With a current global population of over 7.5 Billion people, sustainability resources are becoming more and more stretched. According to the OECD, the number of educated individuals around the world are continually growing yearly.
Because of this growth, the understanding of population control, health services and advanced education are also becoming more attainable. Much of our survival depends on local realities, but with global reach, we can continue to learn from others who are successfully changing their communities to deal with the growth and the need for change.
As we continue to grow, it is critical that we as educators focus on several things for future success. Our children will need to solve complex problems at a much more critical level than we were ever faced with in the current generation. For that reason, educators need to challenge students in such a meaningful way that they begin to gain confidence in their own decision making and in their own skill set that they too can pass that down and help develop the generation after them. By creating opportunities for struggle and challenging learning, we are giving the learners a chance to see growth in themselves in a more obvious way. Teaching the "JOY" in learning allows them to not focus on the failures but to realize the greatest successes come from the deepest darkest places. You can ask any man who has become a success story and most often, you will find that they just would not give into failure. You can't give this gift to a student, it must be earned through trials and errors.
Countries such as Europe and Asia have certainly instituted opportunities for changes in our educational system. In Europe, problem based learning is something that many schools teach regularly. The students are challenged and have to work together to try and come up with a solution. In Asia, many students become specialized in their training early on and can focus on their area of learning and not be forced to learn a broad variety of information that likely will not help them succeed in the job they are working towards. The down side to this method is that variety leads to creativity and unique learning experiences. I feel that focusing on a specific concept can steal untapped potential. I watched a show the other day about the US's newest tennis player rising to stardom. He fled his own country for fear of persecution. When his parents arrived in America, his dad answered a newspaper ad to work as a grounds keeper in a tennis country club. This exposure led his young son to have an interest in Tennis, a sport unheard of in his native country. This boy is now on track to be the world's greatest tennis player someday. Without a variety of experiences, we would not have this child in this situation. For reasons like this, I am not a fan of Asia's "tracked" learning system.
Chapters in Section III discuss evaluation in instructional design and provide you with three evaluation modelsCIPP, Five-Domain, and Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation model. Search for at least two other models used for evaluation and summarize these models. Describe how you would use them to evaluate your instruction.
Our school actually uses Marzano’s Teacher evaluation model. In their model, they provide a self reflection that allows the teacher to look at all four of the different competencies. Theses competencies include
The other evaluation that I am familiar with is the new one that is used in the state of Texas called T-Tess. Like Marzano, T-Tess has 4 competencies.
Reflect on what other questions that instructional design evaluation should address besides whether the instructional design leads to comparable amounts of learning and learner satisfaction as traditional methods. Should return on investment and management of resources also be considered in evaluations of instructional programs? What other measures should/could be considered?
Because I started in the business industry first, I always try to view education practices in the sense that a business would view their own practices. Return on investment (ROI) is critical. I believe that is ultimately the purpose of evaluations and assessments. When students are assessed and administration takes that data to review where they went wrong or right, they are ultimately assessing what their yearly investment in teachers, supplies, learning tools etc. got them. If it got them low results, they will readjust the curriculum, the teachers, the students to try new things and find what works. District essentially does the same thing with admins, trying to find the best fit for their skill set. I am not sure that ROI or management of resources should be part of the end-of-year assessment though. Personally, I think it should be something the teacher does in regards to his or her resources and the investment that the school is making on them. This should probably be a reflection piece that the teacher does that includes data that supports his or her findings. If a school invests in a program to increase reading, the reading teachers should defend the use of the investment yearly to show that the purchase is producing results. A librarian should provide yearly data to support the spending of tens of thousands on databases each year. It should be required and to my knowledge, most schools just don’t do that. Because of that, schools may spend thousands of dollars for all kinds of items that just aren’t being used or aren’t effective. In the budget crisis we face this century, it really should be necessary,
Not all problems in learning and/or performance require an instructional one. Many times a non-instructional approach is a more appropriate solution. Identify a performance problem in your area of work and identify non-instructional solutions that may help solve the problem. Would better performance support systems, knowledge management systems, or opportunities for informal learning solve the problem?
One of the biggest problems we have faced at our school is the ability to share information in a way that when the originator leaves the school, we still have the opportunity to access the files and creations of said person. This isn’t just a problem at my school, it exists everywhere. Many schools, like ours, use tools such as eduphoria to house important lessons and data, but it doesn’t really solve the issue. With eduphoria, only the admins can input data to share amongst the community. We decided to approach this idea from a unique vantage point. What if we created a Google account for the department itself? We could all share our documents with that account, make the account the owner and we would be a editor. You can easily create a file and then transfer ownership. It solves the issue and stress of trying to scramble when people leave suddenly or even when they are absent or on FMLA etc. I think the adjustment of eduphoria’s PMS/LMS system to allow file linkage and or submission would certainly help the situation, I am just not sure they are really built to handle that massive amount of data like Google is in this case.
Epistemology vs. Learning Theories
According to University College Dublin (N.D.), “epistemology influences our own theories of learning, and consequently, how we approach, design, and deliver” information. In contrast, “learning theories are conceptual frameworks in which knowledge is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning” (Wikipedia, 2017). What I understand this to say is that epistemology explains what is filled within the human brain. What makes it “information.” In a different light, I believe learning theories explain how we fill our brains with that information and how we learn certain things, yet don’t learn others. Philosophy Basics (2008) explained it best to me when they said, epistemology is “knowledge-that”, whereas learning theories are “knowledge-how.”
Positivist, Relativist, and Contextualist
The cognitive processes of knowledge, known as epistemic stances consist of positivist, relativist, and contextual. According to Reiser and Dempsey each one of these is unique from the other, but can not stand together; therefore, must stand alone. I definitely fall into the epistemic stance of contextualist. If the knowledge is relative to the context, it seems that my learning has to happen when I am in the midst of doing. I definitely find that the bulk of my learning happens when I have accepted the challenge to figure something out then dive into that process. As a librarian, I can see that many kids feel the same way. Since a large portion of the population learns through auditory and kinesthetic presentation opportunities, it goes without saying that the doing is learning. In the library, we have implemented white board stations, collaborative tv presentation stations, small and large group discussion areas and quiet rooms. Each gives the different learners different opportunities, but I see the greatest learning when the kids are all sitting around working together on something or they are taking turns teaching, reflecting and reteaching.
I have certainly disagreed with others epistemic stances, as I am a Christ believer and have worked in both private and public education. On many occasions, I have come in the presence of another that holds the positivist view, not allowing me to hold my beliefs, because the concrete evidence they hold dear, explains everything. In my eyes though, it does not explain everything. The use of science and factual evidence does not change my beliefs and what I hold true, it only allows me a reason to further examine what I know and how that evidence ties into the picture.
Behaviorist vs. Constructivist Perspectives
Problem solving when approached by behaviorist is different than when approached by a constructivist. A behaviorist sees problem solving as something that has to be understood, explained and predicted by empirical data and observable events. In this method of teaching, the learner receives the information and direction from the teacher. The learner receives the information and completes the task with feedback from the instructor. The immediate feedback is believed to encourage the learner to want to keep learning and trying. I call this the sit-and-get method of teaching and learning.
On the other hand, constructivist see problem solving as something more like what we see today in a learner-centered classroom. The teacher facilitates the lesson by providing guidance, suggestions to help the learner along, but the learner is in charge of his or her own learning opportunities. This comes in the presence of possible materials to enhance their knowledge and resources to extend that knowledge. Project based learning is a great example of constructivist learning. The students are presented with a problem and essentially work to come up with solutions to that problem. During that process, they may pull in the teacher to show them how to do something. Students may do research to find out more information. They may watch videos or seek out experts along the way. They work together to ask questions and build possible outcomes. Throughout the process, their direction may ebb and flow until they finally gain enough knowledge that they can agree on a solution for their problem. They then build a presentation to share with others explaining what they did and their conclusion and how they came to it. The may even share next-steps if they plan to carry that solution through to fruition. Once complete, it is critical that the students follow up the learning with a process of reflection to see where they did good and where they failed. The want to know how to do better next time, and reflection is the way to get there. For students, this way of learning allows freedom and excitement. For most teachers, the lack of hands-on in their approach makes it extremely unattractive. Additionally, it takes a whole lot more planning along the way in order to keep the pace moving, unlike the straight forward style of behaviorist.
"Becoming a Better University Teacher." UCD OER wiki. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2017.
"Epistemology." Epistemology - By Branch / Doctrine - The Basics of Philosophy. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 June 2017.
Reiser, Robert V.; Dempsey, John V. (2011-03-14). Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (3rd
Edition) (Page 40). Pearson HE, Inc.. Kindle Edition.
Instructional Technology has been part of my title for the past ten years. I have spent those years continuously defining it for other people, yet never really knowing the background definitions from historical research. I never would have guessed that the concept of instructional design existed before the mid 20th century. It appears that I have just been uninformed. I found the background information to be a bit confusing until diving further into the more current definitions. If you had presented me the early 20th century definitions and asked my opinion about them, I would have just said they are probably a bit vague in their description.The talk specifically about the media and not so much about the process of learning. When people are posed with the question and have not ever learned about instructional technology and design, even today, they tend to focus more on the presentation style and less on the process itself. I have never defined it in such a way to bring out specifics as presented in the most recent definition, but do strongly believe that instructional technology and design is and should only be used to help expand on and develop learning. If the form of media used is not doing that, it is the wrong tool for the job. We don't use the pencil to complete every job and we can't expect a video or a song to be the right tool for every job either. My experiences in the elementary, middle and high school classrooms have developed my understanding of the growth of knowledge and ability that can develop through the use of informational technology. As the Director of Instructional Technology, it is my responsibility to understand those steps and help teachers to see the potential learning and growth through use of different forms of technology on a daily basis. The definition provided in (Reiser & Dempsey, 2012) allowed me to further understand the true definition in that it not only encompasses the learning and method of delivery, but includes the research and theory that I often don't find myself considering in the development of learning opportunities.
One thing I love to include in my lessons is student-centered learning with end goals in mind. Of Reiser and Dempsey's (2012) 6 characteristics of instructional design, I seem to find those the easiest to incorporate. I did a school wide lesson in research this year. I laid out the process of research, considered the elements, and came up with systemic ways of helping them to problem solve the complex process of research. The students had goals set for their days of research in the library. Each was responsible for choosing a topic and coming up with keywords about that topic that extended beyond the title itself. These words were often difficult, but with a bit of time and allowance to struggle, the students quickly filled their poster paper with many topics relating to their title. Using those terms, they were then tasked with choosing one database and searching their list of terms. Some chose databases wisely based on their names and their content area, and some students had to learn the hard way that databases are not all the same. The best part was stoping every so often and just asking for successes and failures. This would prompt suggestions from other students around the room. It was amazing to see students finally understand the basics of research and to see how they can be self sufficient while allowing meaningful feedback from others. This particular lesson successfully adhered to the six characteristics of instructional design. Not all of my lessons have. After reading this chapter, I can see that meaningful performance is often missing in many lessons I observe. If the students don't relate to or grow interest in the topic, it is often left as a blip in their history of learning... here and gone. This is something I will continue to work with teachers on and help them to develop a plan for continued growth.
In reading about the differences between instructional media and instructional design, I do not necessarily believe Resier ommited teachers, textbooks and chalkboards to say that they are not part of instructional media. According to Disctionary.com (2017), media is defined as the means for communication. That simple definition includes all three of those items as a way for a student to learn and grow. Each of the three elements allows information to be shared and therefore learned by others. A person provides information through voice, action, and lack of action. As a former kindergarten teacher, I know that lack of action sometimes provides more instruction than voice or action. When you stand silent in front of a classroom with your arms crossed, the message is conveyed clearly. I can hear you all giggling at that statement, because as a teacher, we have all used that technique. Textbooks provide pictures of places we can't or will not ever visit, like the human organs or remote parts of the rainforest in South America. The allow self guided learning and are certainly considered a form of communication. Chalkboards, are an extension of the human thought sharing process, like blogs and computers. If a student can gain knowledge and understanding through what is displayed on it, like math, than it to is a form of communication and should be considered part of instructional media. I do believe that part of instructional design's purpose is to incorporate media. When designing a lesson, one has to consider all the ways a student may best learn the topic and then use those tools to allow for learning. If we are not using media, then we can't truly be teaching effectively for all of today's diverse learners.
Media. (2017). Dictionary.com Unabridged. Retrieved June 8, 2017 from Dictionary.com
Reiser, R. A., & Dempsey, J. V. (2012). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Boston:
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